Children’s literature refers to good quality books that place affection and pluri-significant meanings, stimulating children’s personal, social, intellectual,
emotional and cognitive development, creating bridges between culture and generations, valuing cultural, linguistic and physical diversity, without

Citizenship describes the status of being a citizen in a specific country or nation and comes along with particular rights, responsibilities and duties but
also social and psychological components such as the sense of identity.

Civil rights (or civil liberties) describe rights and liberties that ensure individual’s protection from groundless behaviors and actions of the state. At the same
time, civil rights guarantee an individual’s ability to take part in the governments civil life without constraints or discrimination.

Collective rights, which are also sometimes called third generation rights and exist in addition to individual rights, are those rights, that protect a groups
interests and identities.

Critical thinking is the ability to read the world where we live reflexively, exercising citizenship and democracy effectively and with responsibility, to create a just, sustainable and humanistic society. The development of critical thinking skills allows the transformation of society. Teachers’ critical thinking is the way teachers develop personal, social and professional awareness and how they enable children to think critically.


Children’s literature refers to good quality books that place affection and pluri-significant meanings, stimulating children’s personal, social, intellectual,
emotional and cognitive development, creating bridges between culture and generations, valuing cultural, linguistic and physical diversity, without


Early childhood care and education (ECCE) is a phase of education and services increasingly recognised as important in its contribution to a wide range of social, economic and educational goals. It aims the holistic development of children in social, emotional, cognitive and physical dimensions in order to build a solid and broad foundation for lifelong learning and wellbeing.

Equal opportunities for all children means that all children, regardless of gender, mental or physical disability, ethnicity or socioeconomic background have the same opportunities in life and in the future. Each child should get the chance to maximize their full potential to develop cognitively, physically, socially and emotionally. Providing these opportunities specifically entails access to education and training.

Evolving capacity is a proposition of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which suggests the greater implementation of a child’s rights related to their developing emotional and cognitive maturity.


Formal education refers to structured education and training systems in general or vocational educational institutions, such as pre-primary, primary, secondary, or higher education schools and universities, leading to certification.


Global citizenship is the willingness and ability to perceive oneself and to act as a member of a diverse world community, in which mutual understanding,
acceptance and care for people and their natural environment are widely recognized as the main value.

Gender is not the same as sex. Sex refers to a person’s biological status and is typically categorized as male, female or intersex. There are a number of indicators of biological sex, including sex chromosomes, gonads, internal reproductive organs and external genitalia. On the other hand gender describes the attitudes, feelings and behaviors that a given culture associates with a person’s biological sex. Behavior that is compatible with cultural expectations is referred to as gender‐normative; behaviors that are viewed as incompatible with these expectations constitute gender non‐conformity.

Gender identity is the felt, internal sense of being a man, male, man; a woman, female or girl; or an alternative gender. It does not necessarily correspond with the sex assigned at birth or primary/secondary sex characteristics. Therefore, someone’s gender identity may or may not be visible to others.
Gender equality describes the equal rights, opportunities and responsibilities of men, boys, girls and women and all alternative genders. This does not mean that they become the same, but that no one’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities will not depend on whether they are born female or male.


Human rights are those rights that belong to all human beings. They are indivisible and universal, safeguarding the equality and dignity of each individual.


Informal education describes the process of lifelong learning through which all individuals gather knowledge, values, skills, attitudes and competencies through daily experiences as well as from influences by the environment(work, peer-group, family, public spaces, media etc.).

Intercultural refers to the interaction and interconnectivity of ethnic and linguistic communities. Through an intercultural approach, we acknowledge that the world we live in is dynamic, pluralistic and highly complex. Different lives and cultures interact and impact each other, which is recognized as a central part of our reality.

Intersectionality is the idea that there are various forms of discrimination (such as sexism, classism, racism, abelism etc.), which are overlapping and intertwined with one another, and should there not be regarded isolated from one another.


Multicultural means that individuals that belong to different cultures live in acommunity side-by-side and in interaction while also preserving their distinctiveness.


Discrimination by an individual describes a behavior that creates, maintains, or reinforces advantage for some groups and their members over other groups and their members. Non Discrimination thus refers to the idea that no one is treated differently due to a certain set of generalized traits and is not excluded from their political, social, civic, economic or cultural freedoms and rights.

Non-formal education, also called non-formal learning, are educational that happen outside of the formal education (schools, universities etc.), with the goal to increase skills and competencies in a specific field, such as working with youth.


It is a continuous process that gives children the power to express their opinion freely, make decisions and get involved (in actions, practices and dialogues), in matters that affect their life, according to their age, maturity and competence, valuing their agency. This process combines space, voice, influence and audience. Based on the Children’s Convention, participation includes the freedom of expression, of thought, conscience and religion, of association; as well as the right to express their views on all matters affecting them, of access to information, and to participate in the cultural life of the community.

Space is a place of well-being, joy and pleasure open to the plural experiences and interests of children and communities. It must respect personal and social identities and be open to the play and culture.

Considering children’s voices means that they can express their opinions and experiences about issues that concern them and take their opinion and perspective into account. Children must be consulted during decision-making that affects them.

In order to have a significant influence, in addition to giving children a voice, their opinions and perspectives must be taken seriously. Children should be informed of how their views have been taken into account.

It refers to the opportunity of children being heard and their opinions and actions are taken into account by those who make decisions, and by the community where they belong (adults and other children).


Rights-based education is quality education for all children, regardless of economic or intellectual conditions. It is a school designed to and from children where discrimination and violence do not enter, but equality, respect, diversity and freedom.


The term sustainability is described through three different components:
environmental, economic and social sustainability. Environmental sustainability centers around the maintenance of ecological integrity, in which all of the earth’s environmental systems are held in balance while natural resources within them are consumed by humans at a rate where they are able to replenish themselves. Economic sustainability implies that human communities across the globe are able to maintain their independence and have access to the resources that they require, financial and other, to meet their news. Economic systems are intact and activities are available to everyone, such as secure sources of livelihood. Finally, social sustainability entails that universal human rights and basic necessities are attainable by all people, who have access to enough resources in order to keep their families and communities healthy and secure. Healthy communities have just leaders who ensure personal, labour and cultural rights are respected and all people are protected from discrimination.


Tolerance is the willingness to accept beliefs and behaviours different from one’s own and regardless of one’s approval or agreeance with them.